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Fire alarm system

Fire alarm system is a system solution to ensure the safety of people and property in case of fire occurrence, which is often included in the overall security facility system along with safeguarding systems, access monitoring and control management system (AMCS), video monitoring, etc.

Fire alarm is system solution to ensure the safety of people and property in case of fire, often included in the overall security system of the facility along with safeguarding systems, access control systems (ACS), video monitoring, etc. An improved fire alarm system is focused besides on the identification of the fire in a particular room or facility location, actuates a signal about fire, transmits a fire alarm message to the control desk of the fire protection service, unlocks emergency exits in the case of use of the Access Monitoring and Control System, actuates the systems of smoke exhaust, fire barriers control (if available) and actuates automatic fire suppression systems.

At large facilities the fire alarm is initially integrated into the safeguarding system. Small companies, offices, stores may have a fully autonomous fire alarm system designed according to Federal Law No. 123-FZ in force since May 2009 "Technical regulations for fire safety requirements", the new Code of Regulations and a number of national standards.

Simply and constructively the fire alarm system consists of:

  • Systems of sensors (or detectors) which may be linear or point and oriented to a particular facility;
  • Control panel, analysing the current state of alarm annunciators, low-power lines (cables) and controller of actuating of automatic fire suppression systems, alarm messages, smoke exhaust systems and other automatic equipment;
  • Display unit based on the server or computer, showing the state of the fire alarm system;
  • Automated workplace (AWP), which allows in real-time monitor the state of security systems on the computer monitor and control the facility systems from a remote location;
  • Uninterruptable power supply system powering the fire alarm system autonomously or operating as a backup autonomous power source and included into the existing electrical supply network.

Fire extinguishing and fire alarm

Fire alarm systems may use automatically actuated annunciators - heat, smoke detectors, flame detectors and special multi-sensor detectors, in fact, integrated heat and smoke, heat, smoke, flame, etc. In addition, almost all fire alarm systems of large facilities use manual annunciators to enable transmission of alarm message by people, regardless of the fire indication by automatic fire sensors.


There are maximum, differential, maximum and differential radioisotope and optical smoke detector, ultraviolet, infrared, of visible light radiation and integrated flame sensors. Selection of the sensor type, its area of coverage (line, point) and location is performed at the stage of design of the fire alarm system.

Despite the relatively free choice of locations of the annunciators in each facility, there are certain principles of their location caused by the specifics of the distribution of products of combustion in a confined space and the sensitivity of the different sensors on the type of a fire characteristic under control. Thus, flame sensors that respond to open fire radiation flux are located as close as possible to the fire hazardous facility, smoke detectors - depending on the intended layer level of combustion products in case of stratification (separation) of smoke under the ceiling and taking into account the dead zones in the area of adjunction of walls to the ceiling, heat sensors - with the possibility of cooling of hot air by mixing with cold air during convection, etc.

Typical operation of the control panel lies in the periodic analysis and polling of the annunciator cables sleeves connected to the panel; the cable sleeves may be radial or circular. During the polling radiation method the cable sleeves with sensors communicate with the control panel as per the star scheme, and, in case of damage of one of the sensors or cable, the entire cable sleeve appears to be out of service. With a more progressive circular method, the sensor polling is carried out on both sides, and failure of the communication line or the sensor results in deactivation of the cable section bounded by insulating devices, and does not affect the functionality of the fire alarm system as a whole.